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 +==== Manuel de la commande "​make"​ ====
 +MAKE(1) ​                                                      User Commands ​                                                     MAKE(1)
 +       make - GNU make utility to maintain groups of programs
 +       make [OPTION]... [TARGET]...
 +       ​The ​ make  utility ​ will determine automatically which pieces of a large program need to be recompiled, and issue the commands to
 +       ​recompile them.  The manual describes the GNU implementation of make, which was written by Richard Stallman and  Roland ​ McGrath,
 +       ​and ​ is  currently maintained by Paul Smith. ​ Our examples show C programs, since they are very common, but you can use make with
 +       any programming language whose compiler can be run with a shell command. ​ In fact, make is not limited to programs. ​ You can  use
 +       it to describe any task where some files must be updated automatically from others whenever the others change.
 +       ​To ​ prepare ​ to use make, you must write a file called the makefile that describes the relationships among files in your program,
 +       and the states the commands for updating each file.  In a program, typically the executable file is updated ​ from  object ​ files,
 +       which are in turn made by compiling source files.
 +       Once a suitable makefile exists, each time you change some source files, this simple shell command:
 +              make
 +       ​suffices to perform all necessary recompilations. ​ The make program uses the makefile description and the last-modification times
 +       of the files to decide which of the files need to be updated. ​ For each of those files, it issues the commands ​ recorded ​ in  the
 +       ​makefile.
 +       make executes commands in the makefile to update one or more target names, where name is typically a program. ​ If no -f option is
 +       ​present,​ make will look for the makefiles GNUmakefile,​ makefile, and Makefile, in that order.
 +       ​Normally you should call your makefile either makefile or Makefile. ​ (We recommend Makefile because it appears ​ prominently ​ near
 +       ​the ​ beginning of a directory listing, right near other important files such as README.) ​ The first name checked, GNUmakefile,​ is
 +       not recommended for most makefiles. ​ You should use this name if you have a makefile that is specific to GNU make, and  will  not
 +       be understood by other versions of make.  If makefile is '​-',​ the standard input is read.
 +       ​make ​ updates ​ a target if it depends on prerequisite files that have been modified since the target was last modified, or if the
 +       ​target does not exist.
 +       -b, -m
 +            These options are ignored for compatibility with other versions of make.
 +       -B, --always-make
 +            Unconditionally make all targets.
 +       -C dir, --directory=dir
 +            Change to directory dir before reading the makefiles or doing anything else.  If multiple -C options are specified, each  is
 +            interpreted relative to the previous one: -C / -C etc is equivalent to -C /etc.  This is typically used with recursive invo‐
 +            cations of make.
 +       ​-d ​  Print debugging information in addition to normal processing. ​ The debugging information says which files are being  consid‐
 +            ered  for remaking, which file-times are being compared and with what results, which files actually need to be remade, which
 +            implicit rules are considered and which are applied---everything interesting about how make decides what to do.
 +       ​--debug[=FLAGS]
 +            Print debugging information in addition to normal processing. ​ If the FLAGS are omitted, then the behavior is the same as if
 +            -d  was  specified. ​  ​FLAGS ​ may be a for all debugging output (same as using -d), b for basic debugging, v for more verbose
 +            basic debugging, i for showing implicit rules, j for details on invocation of commands, and m for debugging ​ while  remaking
 +            makefiles. ​ Use n to disable all previous debugging flags.
 +       -e, --environment-overrides
 +            Give variables taken from the environment precedence over variables from makefiles.
 +       -f file, --file=file,​ --makefile=FILE
 +            Use file as a makefile.
 +       -i, --ignore-errors
 +            Ignore all errors in commands executed to remake files.
 +       -I dir, --include-dir=dir
 +            Specifies ​ a directory dir to search for included makefiles. ​ If several -I options are used to specify several directories,​
 +            the directories are searched in the order specified. ​ Unlike the arguments to other flags of make, directories given with -I
 +            flags  may come directly after the flag: -Idir is allowed, as well as -I dir.  This syntax is allowed for compatibility with
 +            the C preprocessor'​s -I flag.
 +       -j [jobs], --jobs[=jobs]
 +            Specifies the number of jobs (commands) to run simultaneously. ​ If there is more than one -j option, the last one is  effec‐
 +            tive.  If the -j option is given without an argument, make will not limit the number of jobs that can run simultaneously.
 +       -k, --keep-going
 +            Continue ​ as  much as possible after an error. ​ While the target that failed, and those that depend on it, cannot be remade,
 +            the other dependencies of these targets can be processed all the same.
 +       -l [load], --load-average[=load]
 +            Specifies that no new jobs (commands) should be started if there are others jobs running and the load average ​ is  at  least
 +            load (a floating-point number). ​ With no argument, removes a previous load limit.
 +       -L, --check-symlink-times
 +            Use the latest mtime between symlinks and target.
 +       -n, --just-print,​ --dry-run, --recon
 +            Print the commands that would be executed, but do not execute them (except in certain circumstances).
 +       -o file, --old-file=file,​ --assume-old=file
 +            Do  not  remake the file file even if it is older than its dependencies,​ and do not remake anything on account of changes in
 +            file.  Essentially the file is treated as very old and its rules are ignored.
 +       ​-O[type],​ --output-sync[=type]
 +            When running multiple jobs in parallel with -j, ensure the output of each job is collected together rather than interspersed
 +            with  output ​ from  other  jobs.  If type is not specified or is target the output from the entire recipe for each target is
 +            grouped together. ​ If type is line the output from each command line within a  recipe ​ is  grouped ​ together. ​  ​If ​ type  is
 +            recurse output from an entire recursive make is grouped together. ​ If type is none output synchronization is disabled.
 +       -p, --print-data-base
 +            Print  the data base (rules and variable values) that results from reading the makefiles; then execute as usual or as other‐
 +            wise specified. ​ This also prints the version information given by the -v switch (see below). ​ To print the data base  with‐
 +            out trying to remake any files, use make -p -f/​dev/​null.
 +       -q, --question
 +            ``Question ​ mode''​. ​  ​Do ​ not  run any commands, or print anything; just return an exit status that is zero if the specified
 +            targets are already up to date, nonzero otherwise.
 +       -r, --no-builtin-rules
 +            Eliminate use of the built-in implicit rules. ​ Also clear out the default list of suffixes for suffix rules.
 +       -R, --no-builtin-variables
 +            Don't define any built-in variables.
 +       -s, --silent, --quiet
 +            Silent operation; do not print the commands as they are executed.
 +       -S, --no-keep-going,​ --stop
 +            Cancel the effect of the -k option. ​ This is never necessary except in a recursive make where -k might be inherited from the
 +            top-level make via MAKEFLAGS or if you set -k in MAKEFLAGS in your environment.
 +       -t, --touch
 +            Touch  files (mark them up to date without really changing them) instead of running their commands. ​ This is used to pretend
 +            that the commands were done, in order to fool future invocations of make.
 +       ​--trace
 +            Information about the disposition of each target is printed (why the target is being rebuilt and what commands ​ are  run  to
 +            rebuild it).
 +       -v, --version
 +            Print the version of the make program plus a copyright, a list of authors and a notice that there is no warranty.
 +       -w, --print-directory
 +            Print  a  message ​ containing the working directory before and after other processing. ​ This may be useful for tracking down
 +            errors from complicated nests of recursive make commands.
 +       ​--no-print-directory
 +            Turn off -w, even if it was turned on implicitly.
 +       -W file, --what-if=file,​ --new-file=file,​ --assume-new=file
 +            Pretend that the target file has just been modified. ​ When used with the -n flag, this shows you what would  happen ​ if  you
 +            were  to  modify ​ that  file.  Without -n, it is almost the same as running a touch command on the given file before running
 +            make, except that the modification time is changed only in the imagination of make.
 +       ​--warn-undefined-variables
 +            Warn when an undefined variable is referenced.
 +       GNU make exits with a status of zero if all makefiles were successfully parsed and no targets that were built failed. ​  ​A ​ status
 +       ​of ​ one  will be returned if the -q flag was used and make determines that a target needs to be rebuilt. ​ A status of two will be
 +       ​returned if any errors were encountered.
 +       The full documentation for make is maintained as a Texinfo manual. ​ If the info and make programs are properly installed at  your
 +       site, the command
 +              info make
 +       ​should give you access to the complete manual.
 +       See the chapter ``Problems and Bugs''​ in The GNU Make Manual.
 +       This manual page contributed by Dennis Morse of Stanford University. ​ Further updates contributed by Mike Frysinger. ​ It has been
 +       ​reworked by Roland McGrath. ​ Maintained by Paul Smith.
 +       ​Copyright © 1992-1993, 1996-2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.  This file is part of GNU make.
 +       GNU Make is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General ​ Public ​ License ​ as  pub‐
 +       ​lished by the Free Software Foundation; either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
 +       ​GNU ​ Make  is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MER‐
 +       ​CHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. ​ See the GNU General Public License for more details.
 +       ​You ​ should ​ have  received ​ a  copy  of  the  GNU  General ​ Public ​  ​License ​  ​along ​  ​with ​  ​this ​  ​program. ​   If   ​not, ​  see
 +       ​http://​www.gnu.org/​licenses/​.
 +GNU                                                           03 March 2012                                                      MAKE(1)
  • man_de_make.txt
  • Dernière modification: 2016/03/30 15:33
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