[[man_de_less]]

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 +==== Manuel de la commande "​less"​ ====
 +
 +<​code>​
 +LESS(1) ​                                                 General Commands Manual ​                                                ​LESS(1)
 +
 +
 +
 +NAME
 +       less - opposite of more
 +
 +SYNOPSIS
 +       less -?
 +       less --help
 +       less -V
 +       less --version
 +       less [-[+]aABcCdeEfFgGiIJKLmMnNqQrRsSuUVwWX~]
 +            [-b space] [-h lines] [-j line] [-k keyfile]
 +            [-{oO} logfile] [-p pattern] [-P prompt] [-t tag]
 +            [-T tagsfile] [-x tab,...] [-y lines] [-[z] lines]
 +            [-# shift] [+[+]cmd] [--] [filename]...
 +       (See the OPTIONS section for alternate option syntax with long option names.)
 +
 +
 +DESCRIPTION
 +       ​Less ​ is  a  program similar to more (1), but it has many more features. ​ Less does not have to read the entire input file before
 +       ​starting,​ so with large input files it starts up faster than text editors like vi (1).  Less uses termcap (or  terminfo ​ on  some
 +       ​systems), ​ so it can run on a variety of terminals. ​ There is even limited support for hardcopy terminals. ​ (On a hardcopy termi‐
 +       nal, lines which should be printed at the top of the screen are prefixed with a caret.)
 +
 +       ​Commands are based on both more and vi.  Commands may be preceded by a decimal number, called N in the descriptions ​ below. ​  The
 +       ​number is used by some commands, as indicated.
 +
 +
 +COMMANDS
 +       ​In ​ the  following ​ descriptions, ​ ^X  means control-X. ​ ESC stands for the ESCAPE key; for example ESC-v means the two character
 +       ​sequence "​ESCAPE",​ then "​v"​.
 +
 +       h or H Help: display a summary of these commands. ​ If you forget all the other commands, remember this one.
 +
 +       SPACE or ^V or f or ^F
 +              Scroll forward N lines, default one window (see option -z below). ​ If N is more than  the  screen ​ size,  only  the  final
 +              screenful is displayed. ​ Warning: some systems use ^V as a special literalization character.
 +
 +       ​z ​     Like SPACE, but if N is specified, it becomes the new window size.
 +
 +       ​ESC-SPACE
 +              Like SPACE, but scrolls a full screenful, even if it reaches end-of-file in the process.
 +
 +       ENTER or RETURN or ^N or e or ^E or j or ^J
 +              Scroll forward N lines, default 1.  The entire N lines are displayed, even if N is more than the screen size.
 +
 +       d or ^D
 +              Scroll forward N lines, default one half of the screen size.  If N is specified, it becomes the new default for subsequent
 +              d and u commands.
 +
 +       b or ^B or ESC-v
 +              Scroll backward N lines, default one window (see option -z below). ​ If N is more than the  screen ​ size,  only  the  final
 +              screenful is displayed.
 +
 +       ​w ​     Like ESC-v, but if N is specified, it becomes the new window size.
 +
 +       y or ^Y or ^P or k or ^K
 +              Scroll ​ backward ​ N lines, default 1.  The entire N lines are displayed, even if N is more than the screen size.  Warning:
 +              some systems use ^Y as a special job control character.
 +
 +       u or ^U
 +              Scroll backward N lines, default one half of the screen size.  If N is specified, it becomes the new  default ​ for  subse‐
 +              quent d and u commands.
 +
 +       ESC-) or RIGHTARROW
 +              Scroll horizontally right N characters, default half the screen width (see the -# option). ​ If a number N is specified, it
 +              becomes the default for future RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW commands. ​ While the text is scrolled, it acts as  though ​ the  -S
 +              option (chop lines) were in effect.
 +
 +       ESC-( or LEFTARROW
 +              Scroll ​ horizontally left N characters, default half the screen width (see the -# option). ​ If a number N is specified, it
 +              becomes the default for future RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW commands.
 +
 +       r or ^R or ^L
 +              Repaint the screen.
 +
 +       ​R ​     Repaint the screen, discarding any buffered input. ​ Useful if the file is changing while it is being viewed.
 +
 +       ​F ​     Scroll forward, and keep trying to read when the end of file is reached. ​ Normally this command would be used when already
 +              at the end of the file.  It is a way to monitor the tail of a file which is growing while it is being viewed. ​ (The behav‐
 +              ior is similar to the "tail -f" command.)
 +
 +       ​ESC-F ​ Like F, but as soon as a line is found which matches the last search pattern, ​ the  terminal ​ bell  is  rung  and  forward
 +              scrolling stops.
 +
 +       g or < or ESC-<
 +              Go to line N in the file, default 1 (beginning of file). ​ (Warning: this may be slow if N is large.)
 +
 +       G or > or ESC->
 +              Go to line N in the file, default the end of the file.  (Warning: this may be slow if N is large, or if N is not specified
 +              and standard input, rather than a file, is being read.)
 +
 +       p or % Go to a position N percent into the file.  N should be between 0 and 100, and may contain a decimal point.
 +
 +       ​P ​     Go to the line containing byte offset N in the file.
 +
 +       ​{ ​     If a left curly bracket appears in the top line displayed on the screen, the { command will go to the matching right curly
 +              bracket. ​ The matching right curly bracket is positioned on the bottom line of the screen. ​ If there is more than one left
 +              curly bracket on the top line, a number N may be used to specify the N-th bracket on the line.
 +
 +       ​} ​     If a right curly bracket appears in the bottom line displayed on the screen, the } command will go to  the  matching ​ left
 +              curly  bracket. ​  ​The ​ matching left curly bracket is positioned on the top line of the screen. ​ If there is more than one
 +              right curly bracket on the top line, a number N may be used to specify the N-th bracket on the line.
 +
 +       ​( ​     Like {, but applies to parentheses rather than curly brackets.
 +
 +       ​) ​     Like }, but applies to parentheses rather than curly brackets.
 +
 +       ​[ ​     Like {, but applies to square brackets rather than curly brackets.
 +
 +       ​] ​     Like }, but applies to square brackets rather than curly brackets.
 +
 +       ​ESC-^F Followed by two characters, acts like {, but uses the two characters as open and close brackets, respectively. ​ For  exam‐
 +              ple, "ESC ^F < >" could be used to go forward to the > which matches the < in the top displayed line.
 +
 +       ​ESC-^B Followed ​ by two characters, acts like }, but uses the two characters as open and close brackets, respectively. ​ For exam‐
 +              ple, "ESC ^B < >" could be used to go backward to the < which matches the > in the bottom displayed line.
 +
 +       ​m ​     Followed by any lowercase letter, marks the current position with that letter.
 +
 +       ' ​     (Single quote.) ​ Followed by any lowercase letter, returns to the position which was previously marked with  that  letter.
 +              Followed ​ by  another single quote, returns to the position at which the last "​large"​ movement command was executed. ​ Fol‐
 +              lowed by a ^ or $, jumps to the beginning or end of the file respectively. ​ Marks are preserved when a new file  is  exam‐
 +              ined, so the ' command can be used to switch between input files.
 +
 +       ​^X^X ​  Same as single quote.
 +
 +       /​pattern
 +              Search ​ forward ​ in the file for the N-th line containing the pattern. ​ N defaults to 1.  The pattern is a regular expres‐
 +              sion, as recognized by the regular expression library supplied by your system. ​ The search starts at the first  line  dis‐
 +              played (but see the -a and -j options, which change this).
 +
 +              Certain ​ characters ​ are  special ​ if  entered at the beginning of the pattern; they modify the type of search rather than
 +              become part of the pattern:
 +
 +              ^N or !
 +                     ​Search for lines which do NOT match the pattern.
 +
 +              ^E or *
 +                     ​Search multiple files. ​ That is, if the search reaches the END of the current file without ​ finding ​ a  match, ​ the
 +                     ​search continues in the next file in the command line list.
 +
 +              ^F or @
 +                     Begin the search at the first line of the FIRST file in the command line list, regardless of what is currently dis‐
 +                     ​played on the screen or the settings of the -a or -j options.
 +
 +              ^K     ​Highlight any text which matches the pattern on the current screen, but don't move to the first match (KEEP current
 +                     ​position).
 +
 +              ^R     ​Don'​t interpret regular expression metacharacters;​ that is, do a simple textual comparison.
 +
 +       ?​pattern
 +              Search ​ backward ​ in  the file for the N-th line containing the pattern. ​ The search starts at the line immediately before
 +              the top line displayed.
 +
 +              Certain characters are special as in the / command:
 +
 +              ^N or !
 +                     ​Search for lines which do NOT match the pattern.
 +
 +              ^E or *
 +                     ​Search multiple files. ​ That is, if the search reaches the beginning of the current file without finding ​ a  match,
 +                     the search continues in the previous file in the command line list.
 +
 +              ^F or @
 +                     ​Begin ​ the  search at the last line of the last file in the command line list, regardless of what is currently dis‐
 +                     ​played on the screen or the settings of the -a or -j options.
 +
 +              ^K     As in forward searches.
 +
 +              ^R     As in forward searches.
 +
 +       ​ESC-/​pattern
 +              Same as "/​*"​.
 +
 +       ​ESC-?​pattern
 +              Same as "?​*"​.
 +
 +       ​n ​     Repeat previous search, for N-th line containing the last pattern. ​ If the previous search was modified by ^N, the  search
 +              is  made for the N-th line NOT containing the pattern. ​ If the previous search was modified by ^E, the search continues in
 +              the next (or previous) file if not satisfied in the current file.  If the previous search was modified by ^R,  the  search
 +              is done without using regular expressions. ​ There is no effect if the previous search was modified by ^F or ^K.
 +
 +       ​N ​     Repeat previous search, but in the reverse direction.
 +
 +       ​ESC-n ​ Repeat previous search, but crossing file boundaries. ​ The effect is as if the previous search were modified by *.
 +
 +       ​ESC-N ​ Repeat previous search, but in the reverse direction and crossing file boundaries.
 +
 +       ​ESC-u ​ Undo  search ​ highlighting. ​  ​Turn ​ off  highlighting ​ of strings matching the current search pattern. ​ If highlighting is
 +              already off because of a previous ESC-u command, turn highlighting back on.  Any search command will also turn  highlight‐
 +              ing back on.  (Highlighting can also be disabled by toggling the -G option; in that case search commands do not turn high‐
 +              lighting back on.)
 +
 +       &​pattern
 +              Display only lines which match the pattern; lines which do not match the pattern are not displayed. ​ If pattern ​ is  empty
 +              (if  you type & immediately followed by ENTER), any filtering is turned off, and all lines are displayed. ​ While filtering
 +              is in effect, an ampersand is displayed at the beginning of the prompt, as a reminder that some lines in the file  may  be
 +              hidden.
 +
 +              Certain characters are special as in the / command:
 +
 +              ^N or !
 +                     ​Display only lines which do NOT match the pattern.
 +
 +              ^R     ​Don'​t interpret regular expression metacharacters;​ that is, do a simple textual comparison.
 +
 +       :e [filename]
 +              Examine ​ a  new  file.  If the filename is missing, the "​current"​ file (see the :n and :p commands below) from the list of
 +              files in the command line is re-examined. ​ A percent sign (%) in the filename is replaced by the name of the current file.
 +              A pound sign (#) is replaced by the name of the previously examined file.  However, two consecutive percent signs are sim‐
 +              ply replaced with a single percent sign.  This allows you to enter a filename that contains a percent sign  in  the  name.
 +              Similarly, ​ two  consecutive pound signs are replaced with a single pound sign.  The filename is inserted into the command
 +              line list of files so that it can be seen by subsequent :n and :p commands. ​ If the filename consists ​ of  several ​ files,
 +              they  are all inserted into the list of files and the first one is examined. ​ If the filename contains one or more spaces,
 +              the entire filename should be enclosed in double quotes (also see the -" option).
 +
 +       ^X^V or E
 +              Same as :e.  Warning: some systems use ^V as a special literalization character. ​ On such systems, you may not be able  to
 +              use ^V.
 +
 +       :​n ​    ​Examine ​ the next file (from the list of files given in the command line). ​ If a number N is specified, the N-th next file
 +              is examined.
 +
 +       :​p ​    ​Examine the previous file in the command line list.  If a number N is specified, the N-th previous file is examined.
 +
 +       :​x ​    ​Examine the first file in the command line list.  If a number N is specified, the N-th file in the list is examined.
 +
 +       :​d ​    ​Remove the current file from the list of files.
 +
 +       ​t ​     Go to the next tag, if there were more than one matches for the current tag.  See the -t option ​ for  more  details ​ about
 +              tags.
 +
 +       ​T ​     Go to the previous tag, if there were more than one matches for the current tag.
 +
 +       = or ^G or :f
 +              Prints ​ some information about the file being viewed, including its name and the line number and byte offset of the bottom
 +              line being displayed. ​ If possible, it also prints the length of the file, the number of lines in the file and the percent
 +              of the file above the last displayed line.
 +
 +       ​- ​     Followed ​ by  one  of the command line option letters (see OPTIONS below), this will change the setting of that option and
 +              print a message describing the new setting. ​ If a ^P (CONTROL-P) is entered immediately after the dash, the setting of the
 +              option ​ is  changed ​ but  no message is printed. ​ If the option letter has a numeric value (such as -b or -h), or a string
 +              value (such as -P or -t), a new value may be entered after the option letter. ​ If no  new  value  is  entered, ​ a  message
 +              describing the current setting is printed and nothing is changed.
 +
 +       ​-- ​    ​Like ​ the  - command, but takes a long option name (see OPTIONS below) rather than a single option letter. ​ You must press
 +              ENTER or RETURN after typing the option name.  A ^P immediately after the second dash suppresses ​ printing ​ of  a  message
 +              describing the new setting, as in the - command.
 +
 +       ​-+ ​    ​Followed ​ by  one of the command line option letters this will reset the option to its default setting and print a message
 +              describing the new setting. ​ (The "​-+X"​ command does the same thing as "​-+X"​ on the command line.) ​ This does not work for
 +              string-valued options.
 +
 +       ​--+ ​   Like the -+ command, but takes a long option name rather than a single option letter.
 +
 +       ​-! ​    ​Followed ​ by  one  of the command line option letters, this will reset the option to the "​opposite"​ of its default setting
 +              and print a message describing the new setting. ​ This does not work for numeric or string-valued options.
 +
 +       ​--! ​   Like the -! command, but takes a long option name rather than a single option letter.
 +
 +       ​_ ​     (Underscore.) ​ Followed by one of the command line option letters, this will print a message describing the  current ​ set‐
 +              ting of that option. ​ The setting of the option is not changed.
 +
 +       ​__ ​    ​(Double ​ underscore.) ​  ​Like ​ the _ (underscore) command, but takes a long option name rather than a single option letter.
 +              You must press ENTER or RETURN after typing the option name.
 +
 +       ​+cmd ​  ​Causes the specified cmd to be executed each time a new file is examined. ​ For example, +G causes less to  initially ​ dis‐
 +              play each file starting at the end rather than the beginning.
 +
 +       ​V ​     Prints the version number of less being run.
 +
 +       q or Q or :q or :Q or ZZ
 +              Exits less.
 +
 +       The following four commands may or may not be valid, depending on your particular installation.
 +
 +       ​v ​     Invokes ​ an  editor ​ to  edit  the current file being viewed. ​ The editor is taken from the environment variable VISUAL if
 +              defined, or EDITOR if VISUAL is not defined, or defaults to "​vi"​ if neither VISUAL nor EDITOR is defined. ​  ​See ​ also  the
 +              discussion of LESSEDIT under the section on PROMPTS below.
 +
 +       ! shell-command
 +              Invokes ​ a shell to run the shell-command given. ​ A percent sign (%) in the command is replaced by the name of the current
 +              file.  A pound sign (#) is replaced by the name of the previously examined file.  "​!!"​ repeats ​ the  last  shell  command.
 +              "​!" ​ with  no  shell  command ​ simply ​ invokes a shell. ​ On Unix systems, the shell is taken from the environment variable
 +              SHELL, or defaults to "​sh"​. ​ On MS-DOS and OS/2 systems, the shell is the normal command processor.
 +
 +       | <m> shell-command
 +              <m> represents any mark letter. ​ Pipes a section of the input file to the given shell command. ​ The section of the file to
 +              be piped is between the first line on the current screen and the position marked by the letter. ​ <m> may also be ^ or $ to
 +              indicate beginning or end of file respectively. ​ If <m> is . or newline, the current screen is piped.
 +
 +       s filename
 +              Save the input to a file.  This only works if the input is a pipe, not an ordinary file.
 +
 +OPTIONS
 +       ​Command line options are described below. ​ Most options may be changed while less is running, via the "​-"​ command.
 +
 +       Most options may be given in one of two forms: either a dash followed by a single letter, or two dashes followed by a long option
 +       ​name. ​  ​A ​ long  option ​ name  may  be abbreviated as long as the abbreviation is unambiguous. ​ For example, --quit-at-eof may be
 +       ​abbreviated --quit, but not --qui, since both --quit-at-eof and --quiet begin with --qui. ​ Some long option names are  in  upper‐
 +       ​case, ​ such  as  --QUIT-AT-EOF,​ as distinct from --quit-at-eof. ​ Such option names need only have their first letter capitalized;​
 +       the remainder of the name may be in either case.  For example, --Quit-at-eof is equivalent to --QUIT-AT-EOF.
 +
 +       ​Options are also taken from the environment variable "​LESS"​. ​ For example, to avoid typing "less -options ..." each time less  is
 +       ​invoked,​ you might tell csh:
 +
 +       ​setenv LESS "​-options"​
 +
 +       or if you use sh:
 +
 +       ​LESS="​-options";​ export LESS
 +
 +       On MS-DOS, you don't need the quotes, but you should replace any percent signs in the options string by double percent signs.
 +
 +       ​The ​ environment ​ variable is parsed before the command line, so command line options override the LESS environment variable. ​ If
 +       an option appears in the LESS variable, it can be reset to its default value on the command line by beginning ​ the  command ​ line
 +       ​option with "​-+"​.
 +
 +       ​Some ​ options like -k or -D require a string to follow the option letter. ​ The string for that option is considered to end when a
 +       ​dollar sign ($) is found. ​ For example, you can set two -D options on MS-DOS like this:
 +
 +       ​LESS="​Dn9.1$Ds4.1"​
 +
 +       If the --use-backslash option appears earlier in the options, then a dollar sign or backslash may be  included ​ literally ​ in  an
 +       ​option string by preceding it with a backslash. ​ If the --use-backslash option is not in effect, then backslashes are not treated
 +       ​specially,​ and there is no way to include a dollar sign in the option string.
 +
 +       -? or --help
 +              This option displays a summary of the commands accepted by less (the same as the h command). ​ (Depending on how your shell
 +              interprets the question mark, it may be necessary to quote the question mark, thus: "​-\?"​.)
 +
 +       -a or --search-skip-screen
 +              By  default, ​ forward ​ searches start at the top of the displayed screen and backwards searches start at the bottom of the
 +              displayed screen (except for repeated searches invoked by the n or N commands, which start after or  before ​ the  "​target"​
 +              line  respectively; ​ see  the -j option for more about the target line). ​ The -a option causes forward searches to instead
 +              start at the bottom of the screen and backward searches to start at the top of the screen, thus skipping ​ all  lines  dis‐
 +              played on the screen.
 +
 +       -A or --SEARCH-SKIP-SCREEN
 +              Causes ​ all  forward ​ searches ​ (not  just  non-repeated ​ searches) ​ to start just after the target line, and all backward
 +              searches to start just before the target line.  Thus, forward searches will skip part of the displayed ​ screen ​ (from  the
 +              first  line  up  to  and including the target line). ​ Similarly backwards searches will skip the displayed screen from the
 +              last line up to and including the target line.  This was the default behavior in less versions prior to 441.
 +
 +       -bn or --buffers=n
 +              Specifies the amount of buffer space less will use for each file, in units of kilobytes (1024 bytes). ​ By default ​ 64K  of
 +              buffer space is used for each file (unless the file is a pipe; see the -B option). ​ The -b option specifies instead that n
 +              kilobytes of buffer space should be used for each file.  If n is -1, buffer space is unlimited; that is, the  entire ​ file
 +              can be read into memory.
 +
 +       -B or --auto-buffers
 +              By  default, ​ when  data is read from a pipe, buffers are allocated automatically as needed. ​ If a large amount of data is
 +              read from the pipe, this can cause a large amount of memory to be allocated. ​ The -B option disables this automatic ​ allo‐
 +              cation ​ of  buffers ​ for pipes, so that only 64K (or the amount of space specified by the -b option) is used for the pipe.
 +              Warning: use of -B can result in erroneous display, since only the most recently viewed part of the piped data is kept  in
 +              memory; any earlier data is lost.
 +
 +       -c or --clear-screen
 +              Causes ​ full screen repaints to be painted from the top line down.  By default, full screen repaints are done by scrolling
 +              from the bottom of the screen.
 +
 +       -C or --CLEAR-SCREEN
 +              Same as -c, for compatibility with older versions of less.
 +
 +       -d or --dumb
 +              The -d option suppresses the error message normally displayed if the terminal is dumb; that is, lacks some important capa‐
 +              bility, ​ such as the ability to clear the screen or scroll backward. ​ The -d option does not otherwise change the behavior
 +              of less on a dumb terminal.
 +
 +       ​-Dxcolor or --color=xcolor
 +              [MS-DOS only] Sets the color of the text displayed. ​ x is a single character which selects the type of text whose color is
 +              being  set:  n=normal, ​ s=standout, d=bold, u=underlined,​ k=blink. ​ color is a pair of numbers separated by a period. ​ The
 +              first number selects the foreground color and the second selects the background color of the text.  A single number ​ N  is
 +              the same as N.M, where M is the normal background color.
 +
 +
 +       -e or --quit-at-eof
 +              Causes ​ less  to  automatically exit the second time it reaches end-of-file. ​ By default, the only way to exit less is via
 +              the "​q"​ command.
 +
 +       -E or --QUIT-AT-EOF
 +              Causes less to automatically exit the first time it reaches end-of-file.
 +
 +       -f or --force
 +              Forces non-regular files to be opened. ​ (A non-regular file is a directory or a device special file.) ​ Also suppresses the
 +              warning ​ message ​ when  a  binary file is opened. ​ By default, less will refuse to open non-regular files. ​ Note that some
 +              operating systems will not allow directories to be read, even if -f is set.
 +
 +       -F or --quit-if-one-screen
 +              Causes less to automatically exit if the entire file can be displayed on the first screen.
 +
 +       -g or --hilite-search
 +              Normally, less will highlight ALL strings which match the last search command. ​ The -g option ​ changes ​ this  behavior ​ to
 +              highlight ​ only  the  particular ​ string ​ which was found by the last search command. ​ This can cause less to run somewhat
 +              faster than the default.
 +
 +       -G or --HILITE-SEARCH
 +              The -G option suppresses all highlighting of strings found by search commands.
 +
 +       -hn or --max-back-scroll=n
 +              Specifies a maximum number of lines to scroll backward. ​ If it is necessary to scroll backward ​ more  than  n  lines, ​ the
 +              screen is repainted in a forward direction instead. ​ (If the terminal does not have the ability to scroll backward, -h0 is
 +              implied.)
 +
 +       -i or --ignore-case
 +              Causes searches to ignore case; that is, uppercase and lowercase are considered identical. ​ This option is ignored if  any
 +              uppercase ​ letters appear in the search pattern; in other words, if a pattern contains uppercase letters, then that search
 +              does not ignore case.
 +
 +       -I or --IGNORE-CASE
 +              Like -i, but searches ignore case even if the pattern contains uppercase letters.
 +
 +       -jn or --jump-target=n
 +              Specifies a line on the screen where the "​target"​ line is to be positioned. ​ The target line is the line specified by  any
 +              command ​ to  search for a pattern, jump to a line number, jump to a file percentage or jump to a tag.  The screen line may
 +              be specified by a number: the top line on the screen is 1, the next is 2, and so on.  The number may be negative to  spec‐
 +              ify  a line relative to the bottom of the screen: the bottom line on the screen is -1, the second to the bottom is -2, and
 +              so on.  Alternately,​ the screen line may be specified as a fraction of the height of the screen, starting with  a  decimal
 +              point: ​ .5  is in the middle of the screen, .3 is three tenths down from the first line, and so on.  If the line is speci‐
 +              fied as a fraction, the actual line number is recalculated if the terminal window is resized, ​ so  that  the  target ​ line
 +              remains ​ at  the specified fraction of the screen height. ​ If any form of the -j option is used, forward searches begin at
 +              the line immediately after the target line, and backward searches begin at the target line, unless changed by  -a  or  -A.
 +              For  example, ​ if  "​-j4"​ is used, the target line is the fourth line on the screen, so forward searches begin at the fifth
 +              line on the screen.
 +
 +       -J or --status-column
 +              Displays a status column at the left edge of the screen. ​ The status column shows  the  lines  that  matched ​ the  current
 +              search. ​ The status column is also used if the -w or -W option is in effect.
 +
 +       ​-kfilename or --lesskey-file=filename
 +              Causes ​ less  to  open  and interpret the named file as a lesskey (1) file.  Multiple -k options may be specified. ​ If the
 +              LESSKEY or LESSKEY_SYSTEM environment variable is set, or if a lesskey file is found in a standard place  (see  KEY  BIND‐
 +              INGS), it is also used as a lesskey file.
 +
 +       -K or --quit-on-intr
 +              Causes less to exit immediately (with status 2) when an interrupt character (usually ^C) is typed. ​ Normally, an interrupt
 +              character causes less to stop whatever it is doing and return to its command prompt. ​ Note that use of this  option ​ makes
 +              it impossible to return to the command prompt from the "​F"​ command.
 +
 +       -L or --no-lessopen
 +              Ignore ​ the  LESSOPEN environment variable (see the INPUT PREPROCESSOR section below). ​ This option can be set from within
 +              less, but it will apply only to files opened subsequently,​ not to the file which is currently open.
 +
 +       -m or --long-prompt
 +              Causes less to prompt verbosely (like more), with the percent into the file.  By default, less prompts with a colon.
 +
 +       -M or --LONG-PROMPT
 +              Causes less to prompt even more verbosely than more.
 +
 +       -n or --line-numbers
 +              Suppresses line numbers. ​ The default (to use line numbers) may cause less to run more slowly in  some  cases, ​ especially
 +              with  a  very  large input file.  Suppressing line numbers with the -n option will avoid this problem. ​ Using line numbers
 +              means: the line number will be displayed in the verbose prompt and in the = command, and the v command will pass the  cur‐
 +              rent line number to the editor (see also the discussion of LESSEDIT in PROMPTS below).
 +
 +       -N or --LINE-NUMBERS
 +              Causes a line number to be displayed at the beginning of each line in the display.
 +
 +       ​-ofilename or --log-file=filename
 +              Causes ​ less  to copy its input to the named file as it is being viewed. ​ This applies only when the input file is a pipe,
 +              not an ordinary file.  If the file already exists, less will ask for confirmation before overwriting it.
 +
 +       ​-Ofilename or --LOG-FILE=filename
 +              The -O option is like -o, but it will overwrite an existing file without asking for confirmation.
 +
 +              If no log file has been specified, the -o and -O options can be used from within less to specify a log  file.   ​Without ​ a
 +              file  name,  they will simply report the name of the log file.  The "​s"​ command is equivalent to specifying -o from within
 +              less.
 +
 +       ​-ppattern or --pattern=pattern
 +              The -p option on the command line is equivalent to specifying +/pattern; that is, it tells less  to  start  at  the  first
 +              occurrence of pattern in the file.
 +
 +       ​-Pprompt or --prompt=prompt
 +              Provides ​ a  way  to tailor the three prompt styles to your own preference. ​ This option would normally be put in the LESS
 +              environment variable, rather than being typed in with each less command. ​ Such an option must either be the last option in
 +              the LESS variable, or be terminated by a dollar sign.  -Ps followed by a string changes the default (short) prompt to that
 +              string. ​ -Pm changes the medium (-m) prompt. ​ -PM changes the long (-M) prompt. ​ -Ph  changes ​ the  prompt ​ for  the  help
 +              screen. ​ -P= changes the message printed by the = command. ​ -Pw changes the message printed while waiting for data (in the
 +              F command). ​ All prompt strings consist of a sequence of letters and special escape sequences. ​ See the section on PROMPTS
 +              for more details.
 +
 +       -q or --quiet or --silent
 +              Causes ​ moderately ​ "​quiet" ​ operation: ​ the terminal bell is not rung if an attempt is made to scroll past the end of the
 +              file or before the beginning of the file.  If the terminal has a "​visual bell", it is used instead. ​ The bell will be rung
 +              on certain other errors, such as typing an invalid character. ​ The default is to ring the terminal bell in all such cases.
 +
 +       -Q or --QUIET or --SILENT
 +              Causes totally "​quiet"​ operation: the terminal bell is never rung.
 +
 +       -r or --raw-control-chars
 +              Causes ​ "​raw" ​ control characters to be displayed. ​ The default is to display control characters using the caret notation;
 +              for example, a control-A (octal 001) is displayed as "​^A"​. ​ Warning: when the -r option is used, less cannot keep track of
 +              the  actual ​ appearance ​ of  the screen (since this depends on how the screen responds to each type of control character).
 +              Thus, various display problems may result, such as long lines being split in the wrong place.
 +
 +       -R or --RAW-CONTROL-CHARS
 +              Like -r, but only ANSI "​color"​ escape sequences are output in "​raw"​ form.  Unlike -r, the screen appearance is  maintained
 +              correctly in most cases. ​ ANSI "​color"​ escape sequences are sequences of the form:
 +
 +                   ESC [ ... m
 +
 +              where the "​..."​ is zero or more color specification characters For the purpose of keeping track of screen appearance, ANSI
 +              color escape sequences are assumed to not move the cursor. ​ You can make less think that characters other than "​m"​ can end
 +              ANSI color escape sequences by setting the environment variable LESSANSIENDCHARS to the list of characters which can end a
 +              color escape sequence. ​ And you can make less think that characters other than the standard ones may  appear ​ between ​ the
 +              ESC and the m by setting the environment variable LESSANSIMIDCHARS to the list of characters which can appear.
 +
 +       -s or --squeeze-blank-lines
 +              Causes consecutive blank lines to be squeezed into a single blank line.  This is useful when viewing nroff output.
 +
 +       -S or --chop-long-lines
 +              Causes ​ lines  longer than the screen width to be chopped (truncated) rather than wrapped. ​ That is, the portion of a long
 +              line that does not fit in the screen width is not shown. ​ The default is to wrap long lines; that is, display the  remain‐
 +              der on the next line.
 +
 +       -ttag or --tag=tag
 +              The  -t  option, followed immediately by a TAG, will edit the file containing that tag.  For this to work, tag information
 +              must be available; for example, there may be a file in the current directory called "​tags",​ which was previously built  by
 +              ctags  (1)  or  an equivalent command. ​ If the environment variable LESSGLOBALTAGS is set, it is taken to be the name of a
 +              command compatible with global (1), and  that  command ​ is  executed ​ to  find  the  tag.   ​(See ​ http://​www.gnu.org/​soft‐
 +              ware/​global/​global.html). ​  The -t option may also be specified from within less (using the - command) as a way of examin‐
 +              ing a new file.  The command ":​t"​ is equivalent to specifying -t from within less.
 +
 +       ​-Ttagsfile or --tag-file=tagsfile
 +              Specifies a tags file to be used instead of "​tags"​.
 +
 +       -u or --underline-special
 +              Causes backspaces and carriage returns to be treated as printable characters; that is, they are sent to the terminal ​ when
 +              they appear in the input.
 +
 +       -U or --UNDERLINE-SPECIAL
 +              Causes ​ backspaces, ​ tabs and carriage returns to be treated as control characters; that is, they are handled as specified
 +              by the -r option.
 +
 +              By default, if neither -u nor -U is given, backspaces which appear adjacent to an underscore character ​ are  treated ​ spe‐
 +              cially: ​ the  underlined ​ text  is displayed using the terminal'​s hardware underlining capability. ​ Also, backspaces which
 +              appear between two identical characters are treated specially: the overstruck text is printed using the  terminal'​s ​ hard‐
 +              ware boldface capability. ​ Other backspaces are deleted, along with the preceding character. ​ Carriage returns immediately
 +              followed by a newline are deleted. ​ Other carriage returns are handled as specified by the -r option. ​ Text which is over‐
 +              struck or underlined can be searched for if neither -u nor -U is in effect.
 +
 +       -V or --version
 +              Displays the version number of less.
 +
 +       -w or --hilite-unread
 +              Temporarily ​ highlights ​ the  first  "​new"​ line after a forward movement of a full page.  The first "​new"​ line is the line
 +              immediately following the line previously at the bottom of the screen. ​ Also highlights the target line after  a  g  or  p
 +              command. ​  The highlight is removed at the next command which causes movement. ​ The entire line is highlighted,​ unless the
 +              -J option is in effect, in which case only the status column is highlighted.
 +
 +       -W or --HILITE-UNREAD
 +              Like -w, but temporarily highlights the first new line after any forward movement command larger than one line.
 +
 +       ​-xn,​... or --tabs=n,​...
 +              Sets tab stops. ​ If only one n is specified, tab stops are set at multiples of n.  If multiple values separated by  commas
 +              are  specified, ​ tab stops are set at those positions, and then continue with the same spacing as the last two.  For exam‐
 +              ple, -x9,17 will set tabs at positions 9, 17, 25, 33, etc.  The default for n is 8.
 +
 +       -X or --no-init
 +              Disables sending the termcap initialization and deinitialization strings to the terminal. ​ This is sometimes desirable ​ if
 +              the deinitialization string does something unnecessary,​ like clearing the screen.
 +
 +       -yn or --max-forw-scroll=n
 +              Specifies a maximum number of lines to scroll forward. ​ If it is necessary to scroll forward more than n lines, the screen
 +              is repainted instead. ​ The -c or -C option may be used to repaint from the top of the screen if desired. ​ By default, ​ any
 +              forward movement causes scrolling.
 +
 +       -[z]n or --window=n
 +              Changes ​ the  default ​ scrolling ​ window size to n lines. ​ The default is one screenful. ​ The z and w commands can also be
 +              used to change the window size.  The "​z"​ may be omitted for compatibility with some versions of more.  If the number n  is
 +              negative, ​ it  indicates n lines less than the current screen size.  For example, if the screen is 24 lines, -z-4 sets the
 +              scrolling window to 20 lines. ​ If the screen is resized to 40 lines, the scrolling ​ window ​ automatically ​ changes ​ to  36
 +              lines.
 +
 +       ​-"​cc or --quotes=cc
 +              Changes the filename quoting character. ​ This may be necessary if you are trying to name a file which contains both spaces
 +              and quote characters. ​ Followed by a single character, this changes the quote character to that character. ​ Filenames con‐
 +              taining ​ a  space  should ​ then be surrounded by that character rather than by double quotes. ​ Followed by two characters,
 +              changes the open quote to the first character, and the close quote to the second character. ​ Filenames containing a  space
 +              should ​ then  be preceded by the open quote character and followed by the close quote character. ​ Note that even after the
 +              quote characters are changed, this option remains -" (a dash followed by a double quote).
 +
 +       -~ or --tilde
 +              Normally lines after end of file are displayed as a single tilde (~).  This option causes lines after end of  file  to  be
 +              displayed as blank lines.
 +
 +       -# or --shift
 +              Specifies ​ the default number of positions to scroll horizontally in the RIGHTARROW and LEFTARROW commands. ​ If the number
 +              specified is zero, it sets the default number of positions to one half of the screen width. ​ Alternately,​ the  number ​ may
 +              be  specified ​ as a fraction of the width of the screen, starting with a decimal point: .5 is half of the screen width, .3
 +              is three tenths of the screen width, and so on.  If the number is specified as a fraction, the  actual ​ number ​ of  scroll
 +              positions ​ is  recalculated if the terminal window is resized, so that the actual scroll remains at the specified fraction
 +              of the screen width.
 +
 +       ​--follow-name
 +              Normally, if the input file is renamed while an F command is executing, less will continue to display the contents of  the
 +              original ​ file despite its name change. ​ If --follow-name is specified, during an F command less will periodically attempt
 +              to reopen the file by name.  If the reopen succeeds and the file is a different file from the original (which means that a
 +              new  file  has been created with the same name as the original (now renamed) file), less will display the contents of that
 +              new file.
 +
 +       ​--no-keypad
 +              Disables sending the keypad initialization and deinitialization strings to the terminal. ​ This is sometimes useful if  the
 +              keypad strings make the numeric keypad behave in an undesirable manner.
 +
 +       ​--use-backslash
 +              This option changes the interpretations of options which follow this one.  After the --use-backslash option, any backslash
 +              in an option string is removed and the following character is taken literally. ​ This allows a dollar sign to  be  included
 +              in option strings.
 +
 +       ​-- ​    ​A ​ command line argument of "​--"​ marks the end of option arguments. ​ Any arguments following this are interpreted as file‐
 +              names. ​ This can be useful when viewing a file whose name begins with a "​-"​ or "​+"​.
 +
 +       ​+ ​     If a command line option begins with +, the remainder of that option is taken to be an initial command to less.  For exam‐
 +              ple,  +G  tells  less  to start at the end of the file rather than the beginning, and +/xyz tells it to start at the first
 +              occurrence of "​xyz"​ in the file.  As a special case, +<​number>​ acts like +<​number>​g;​ that is, it starts the display at the
 +              specified ​ line  number ​ (however, see the caveat under the "​g"​ command above). ​ If the option starts with ++, the initial
 +              command applies to every file being viewed, not just the first one.  The + command described previously may also  be  used
 +              to set (or change) an initial command for every file.
 +
 +
 +LINE EDITING
 +       ​When ​ entering ​ command line at the bottom of the screen (for example, a filename for the :e command, or the pattern for a search
 +       ​command),​ certain keys can be used to manipulate the command line.  Most commands have an alternate form in [  brackets ​ ]  which
 +       can be used if a key does not exist on a particular keyboard. ​ (Note that the forms beginning with ESC do not work in some MS-DOS
 +       and Windows systems because ESC is the line erase character.) ​ Any of these special keys may be entered literally by preceding it
 +       with the "​literal"​ character, either ^V or ^A.  A backslash itself may also be entered literally by entering two backslashes.
 +
 +       ​LEFTARROW [ ESC-h ]
 +              Move the cursor one space to the left.
 +
 +       ​RIGHTARROW [ ESC-l ]
 +              Move the cursor one space to the right.
 +
 +       ​^LEFTARROW [ ESC-b or ESC-LEFTARROW ]
 +              (That is, CONTROL and LEFTARROW simultaneously.) ​ Move the cursor one word to the left.
 +
 +       ​^RIGHTARROW [ ESC-w or ESC-RIGHTARROW ]
 +              (That is, CONTROL and RIGHTARROW simultaneously.) ​ Move the cursor one word to the right.
 +
 +       HOME [ ESC-0 ]
 +              Move the cursor to the beginning of the line.
 +
 +       END [ ESC-$ ]
 +              Move the cursor to the end of the line.
 +
 +       ​BACKSPACE
 +              Delete the character to the left of the cursor, or cancel the command if the command line is empty.
 +
 +       ​DELETE or [ ESC-x ]
 +              Delete the character under the cursor.
 +
 +       ​^BACKSPACE [ ESC-BACKSPACE ]
 +              (That is, CONTROL and BACKSPACE simultaneously.) ​ Delete the word to the left of the cursor.
 +
 +       ​^DELETE [ ESC-X or ESC-DELETE ]
 +              (That is, CONTROL and DELETE simultaneously.) ​ Delete the word under the cursor.
 +
 +       ​UPARROW [ ESC-k ]
 +              Retrieve ​ the  previous ​ command line.  If you first enter some text and then press UPARROW, it will retrieve the previous
 +              command which begins with that text.
 +
 +       ​DOWNARROW [ ESC-j ]
 +              Retrieve the next command line.  If you first enter some text and then press DOWNARROW, it will retrieve the next  command
 +              which begins with that text.
 +
 +       ​TAB ​   Complete the partial filename to the left of the cursor. ​ If it matches more than one filename, the first match is entered
 +              into the command line.  Repeated TABs will cycle thru the other matching filenames. ​ If the completed filename is a direc‐
 +              tory,  a "/"​ is appended to the filename. ​ (On MS-DOS systems, a "​\"​ is appended.) ​ The environment variable LESSSEPARATOR
 +              can be used to specify a different character to append to a directory name.
 +
 +       ​BACKTAB [ ESC-TAB ]
 +              Like, TAB, but cycles in the reverse direction thru the matching filenames.
 +
 +       ​^L ​    ​Complete the partial filename to the left of the cursor. ​ If it matches more than one filename, all  matches ​ are  entered
 +              into the command line (if they fit).
 +
 +       ^U (Unix and OS/2) or ESC (MS-DOS)
 +              Delete ​ the  entire ​ command line, or cancel the command if the command line is empty. ​ If you have changed your line-kill
 +              character in Unix to something other than ^U, that character is used instead of ^U.
 +
 +       ​^G ​    ​Delete the entire command line and return to the main prompt.
 +
 +
 +KEY BINDINGS
 +       You may define your own less commands by using the program lesskey (1) to create a lesskey file.  This file specifies ​ a  set  of
 +       ​command ​ keys  and  an action associated with each key.  You may also use lesskey to change the line-editing keys (see LINE EDIT‐
 +       ING), and to set environment variables. ​ If the environment variable LESSKEY is set, less uses that as the name  of  the  lesskey
 +       ​file. ​  ​Otherwise, ​ less  looks  in  a standard place for the lesskey file: On Unix systems, less looks for a lesskey file called
 +       "​$HOME/​.less"​. ​ On MS-DOS and Windows systems, less looks for a lesskey file called "​$HOME/​_less",​ and if it is not found  there,
 +       ​then ​ looks for a lesskey file called "​_less"​ in any directory specified in the PATH environment variable. ​ On OS/2 systems, less
 +       looks for a lesskey file called "​$HOME/​less.ini",​ and if it is not found, then looks for a lesskey file called "​less.ini"​ in  any
 +       ​directory ​ specified in the INIT environment variable, and if it not found there, then looks for a lesskey file called "​less.ini"​
 +       in any directory specified in the PATH environment variable. ​ See the lesskey manual page for more details.
 +
 +       A system-wide lesskey file may also be set up to provide key bindings. ​ If a key is defined in both a local lesskey file  and  in
 +       ​the ​ system-wide ​ file,  key  bindings ​ in the local file take precedence over those in the system-wide file.  If the environment
 +       ​variable LESSKEY_SYSTEM is set, less uses that as the name of the system-wide lesskey file.  Otherwise, less looks in a  standard
 +       ​place ​ for  the  system-wide lesskey file: On Unix systems, the system-wide lesskey file is /​usr/​local/​etc/​sysless. ​ (However, if
 +       less was built with a different sysconf directory than /​usr/​local/​etc,​ that directory is where the sysless file  is  found.) ​  On
 +       ​MS-DOS ​ and  Windows ​ systems, ​ the  system-wide ​ lesskey ​ file is c:​\_sysless. ​ On OS/2 systems, the system-wide lesskey file is
 +       ​c:​\sysless.ini.
 +
 +
 +INPUT PREPROCESSOR
 +       You may define an "input preprocessor"​ for less.  Before less opens a file, it first gives your input preprocessor ​ a  chance ​ to
 +       ​modify ​ the way the contents of the file are displayed. ​ An input preprocessor is simply an executable program (or shell script),
 +       which writes the contents of the file to a different file, called the replacement file.  The contents of the replacement file are
 +       ​then ​ displayed ​ in  place  of the contents of the original file.  However, it will appear to the user as if the original file is
 +       ​opened;​ that is, less will display the original filename as the name of the current file.
 +
 +       An input preprocessor receives one command line argument, the original filename, as entered by the user.  It  should ​ create ​ the
 +       ​replacement ​ file,  and  when finished, print the name of the replacement file to its standard output. ​ If the input preprocessor
 +       does not output a replacement filename, less uses the original file, as normal. ​ The input preprocessor is not called when  view‐
 +       ​ing ​ standard ​ input. ​ To set up an input preprocessor,​ set the LESSOPEN environment variable to a command line which will invoke
 +       your input preprocessor. ​ This command line should include one occurrence of the string "​%s",​ which will be replaced by the file‐
 +       name when the input preprocessor command is invoked.
 +
 +       When less closes a file opened in such a way, it will call another program, called the input postprocessor,​ which may perform any
 +       ​desired clean-up action (such as deleting the replacement file created by LESSOPEN). ​ This  program ​ receives ​ two  command ​ line
 +       ​arguments,​ the original filename as entered by the user, and the name of the replacement file.  To set up an input postprocessor,​
 +       set the LESSCLOSE environment variable to a command line which will invoke your input postprocessor. ​ It may include ​ two  occur‐
 +       ​rences ​ of the string "​%s";​ the first is replaced with the original name of the file and the second with the name of the replace‐
 +       ment file, which was output by LESSOPEN.
 +
 +       For example, on many Unix systems, these two scripts will allow you to keep files in compressed format, but still let  less  view
 +       them directly:
 +
 +       ​lessopen.sh:​
 +            #! /bin/sh
 +            case "​$1"​ in
 +            *.Z) uncompress -
 +                 if [ -s /​tmp/​less.$$ ]; then
 +                      echo /​tmp/​less.$$
 +                 else
 +                      rm -f /​tmp/​less.$$
 +                 fi
 +                 ;;
 +            esac
 +
 +       ​lessclose.sh:​
 +            #! /bin/sh
 +            rm $2
 +
 +       ​To ​ use  these  scripts, ​ put  them  both  where  they  can  be  executed and set LESSOPEN="​lessopen.sh %s", and LESSCLOSE="​less‐
 +       ​close.sh %s %s"​. ​ More complex LESSOPEN and LESSCLOSE scripts may be written to accept other types of compressed ​ files, ​ and  so
 +       on.
 +
 +       ​It ​ is  also possible to set up an input preprocessor to pipe the file data directly to less, rather than putting the data into a
 +       ​replacement file.  This avoids the need to decompress the entire file before starting to view it.   ​An ​ input  preprocessor ​ that
 +       works this way is called an input pipe.  An input pipe, instead of writing the name of a replacement file on its standard output,
 +       ​writes the entire contents of the replacement file on its standard output. ​ If the input pipe does not write  any  characters ​ on
 +       ​its ​ standard ​ output, ​ then there is no replacement file and less uses the original file, as normal. ​ To use an input pipe, make
 +       the first character in the LESSOPEN environment variable a vertical bar (|) to signify that the input preprocessor ​ is  an  input
 +       pipe.
 +
 +       For example, on many Unix systems, this script will work like the previous example scripts:
 +
 +       ​lesspipe.sh:​
 +            #! /bin/sh
 +            case "​$1"​ in
 +            *.Z) uncompress -c $1  2>/​dev/​null
 +            *)   exit 1
 +                 ;;
 +            esac
 +            exit $?
 +
 +       To use this script, put it where it can be executed and set LESSOPEN="​|lesspipe.sh %s".
 +
 +       Note that a preprocessor cannot output an empty file, since that is interpreted as meaning there is no replacement,​ and the orig‐
 +       inal file is used.  To avoid this, if LESSOPEN starts with two vertical bars, the exit status of the script ​ becomes ​ meaningful.
 +       ​If ​ the  exit  status is zero, the output is considered to be replacement text, even if it empty. ​ If the exit status is nonzero,
 +       any output is ignored and the original file is used.  For compatibility with previous versions of less, if LESSOPEN ​ starts ​ with
 +       only one vertical bar, the exit status of the preprocessor is ignored.
 +
 +       ​When ​ an input pipe is used, a LESSCLOSE postprocessor can be used, but it is usually not necessary since there is no replacement
 +       file to clean up.  In this case, the replacement file name passed to the LESSCLOSE postprocessor is "​-"​.
 +
 +       For compatibility with previous versions of less, the input preprocessor or pipe is not used if less is viewing ​ standard ​ input.
 +       ​However, ​ if  the  first  character ​ of LESSOPEN is a dash (-), the input preprocessor is used on standard input as well as other
 +       ​files. ​ In this case, the dash is not considered to be part of the preprocessor command. ​ If standard input is being viewed, ​ the
 +       ​input ​ preprocessor ​ is  passed ​ a file name consisting of a single dash.  Similarly, if the first two characters of LESSOPEN are
 +       ​vertical bar and dash (|-) or two vertical bars and a dash (||-), the input pipe is used on  standard ​ input  as  well  as  other
 +       ​files. ​ Again, in this case the dash is not considered to be part of the input pipe command.
 +
 +
 +NATIONAL CHARACTER SETS
 +       There are three types of characters in the input file:
 +
 +       ​normal characters
 +              can be displayed directly to the screen.
 +
 +       ​control characters
 +              should not be displayed directly, but are expected to be found in ordinary text files (such as backspace and tab).
 +
 +       ​binary characters
 +              should not be displayed directly and are not expected to be found in text files.
 +
 +       ​A ​ "​character set" is simply a description of which characters are to be considered normal, control, and binary. ​ The LESSCHARSET
 +       ​environment variable may be used to select a character set.  Possible values for LESSCHARSET are:
 +
 +       ​ascii ​ BS, TAB, NL, CR, and formfeed are control characters, all chars with values between 32 and 126 are normal, and all  others
 +              are binary.
 +
 +       ​iso8859
 +              Selects an ISO 8859 character set.  This is the same as ASCII, except characters between 160 and 255 are treated as normal
 +              characters.
 +
 +       ​latin1 Same as iso8859.
 +
 +       ​latin9 Same as iso8859.
 +
 +       ​dos ​   Selects a character set appropriate for MS-DOS.
 +
 +       ​ebcdic Selects an EBCDIC character set.
 +
 +       ​IBM-1047
 +              Selects an EBCDIC character set used by OS/390 Unix Services. ​ This is the EBCDIC analogue of  latin1. ​  ​You ​ get  similar
 +              results by setting either LESSCHARSET=IBM-1047 or LC_CTYPE=en_US in your environment.
 +
 +       ​koi8-r Selects a Russian character set.
 +
 +       ​next ​  ​Selects a character set appropriate for NeXT computers.
 +
 +       ​utf-8 ​ Selects ​ the UTF-8 encoding of the ISO 10646 character set.  UTF-8 is special in that it supports multi-byte characters in
 +              the input file.  It is the only character set that supports multi-byte characters.
 +
 +       ​windows
 +              Selects a character set appropriate for Microsoft Windows (cp 1251).
 +
 +       In rare cases, it may be desired to tailor less to use a character set other than the ones definable ​ by  LESSCHARSET. ​  ​In ​ this
 +       ​case, ​ the environment variable LESSCHARDEF can be used to define a character set.  It should be set to a string where each char‐
 +       acter in the string represents one character in the character set.  The character "​."​ is used for a  normal ​ character, ​ "​c" ​ for
 +       ​control, ​ and  "​b" ​ for  binary. ​  A decimal number may be used for repetition. ​ For example, "​bccc4b."​ would mean character 0 is
 +       ​binary,​ 1, 2 and 3 are control, 4, 5, 6 and 7 are binary, and 8 is normal. ​ All characters after the last are  taken  to  be  the
 +       ​same ​ as the last, so characters 9 through 255 would be normal. ​ (This is an example, and does not necessarily represent any real
 +       ​character set.)
 +
 +       This table shows the value of LESSCHARDEF which is equivalent to each of the possible values for LESSCHARSET:​
 +
 +            ascii     ​8bcccbcc18b95.b
 +            dos       ​8bcccbcc12bc5b95.b.
 +            ebcdic ​   5bc6bcc7bcc41b.9b7.9b5.b..8b6.10b6.b9.7b
 +                      9.8b8.17b3.3b9.7b9.8b8.6b10.b.b.b.
 +            IBM-1047 ​ 4cbcbc3b9cbccbccbb4c6bcc5b3cbbc4bc4bccbc
 +                      191.b
 +            iso8859 ​  ​8bcccbcc18b95.33b.
 +            koi8-r ​   8bcccbcc18b95.b128.
 +            latin1 ​   8bcccbcc18b95.33b.
 +            next      8bcccbcc18b95.bb125.bb
 +
 +       If neither LESSCHARSET nor LESSCHARDEF is set, but any of the strings "​UTF-8",​ "​UTF8",​ "​utf-8"​ or "​utf8"​ is found in the  LC_ALL,
 +       ​LC_CTYPE or LANG environment variables, then the default character set is utf-8.
 +
 +       If that string is not found, but your system supports the setlocale interface, less will use setlocale to determine the character
 +       ​set. ​ setlocale is controlled by setting the LANG or LC_CTYPE environment variables.
 +
 +       ​Finally,​ if the setlocale interface is also not available, the default character set is latin1.
 +
 +       ​Control and binary characters are displayed in standout (reverse video). ​ Each such character is displayed in caret  notation ​ if
 +       ​possible (e.g. ^A for control-A). ​ Caret notation is used only if inverting the 0100 bit results in a normal printable character.
 +       ​Otherwise,​ the character is displayed as a hex number in angle brackets. ​ This format can be changed by  setting ​ the  LESSBINFMT
 +       ​environment ​ variable. ​ LESSBINFMT may begin with a "​*"​ and one character to select the display attribute: "​*k"​ is blinking, "​*d"​
 +       is bold, "​*u"​ is underlined, "​*s"​ is standout, and "​*n"​ is normal. ​ If LESSBINFMT does not begin with a "​*",​ normal attribute ​ is
 +       ​assumed. ​ The remainder of LESSBINFMT is a string which may include one printf-style escape sequence (a % followed by x, X, o, d,
 +       ​etc.). ​ For example, if LESSBINFMT is "​*u[%x]",​ binary characters are displayed in underlined hexadecimal surrounded by brackets.
 +       ​The ​ default ​ if no LESSBINFMT is specified is "​*s<​%02X>"​. ​ Warning: the result of expanding the character via LESSBINFMT must be
 +       less than 31 characters.
 +
 +       When the character set is utf-8, the LESSUTFBINFMT environment variable acts similarly to LESSBINFMT but it  applies ​ to  Unicode
 +       ​code ​ points ​ that were successfully decoded but are unsuitable for display (e.g., unassigned code points). ​ Its default value is
 +       "<​U+%04lX>"​. ​ Note that LESSUTFBINFMT and LESSBINFMT share their display attribute setting ("​*x"​) so specifying one  will  affect
 +       ​both; ​ LESSUTFBINFMT ​ is  read  after  LESSBINFMT so its setting, if any, will have priority. ​ Problematic octets in a UTF-8 file
 +       ​(octets of a truncated sequence, octets of a complete but non-shortest form sequence, illegal octets, and stray trailing ​ octets)
 +       are displayed individually using LESSBINFMT so as to facilitate diagnostic of how the UTF-8 file is ill-formed.
 +
 +
 +PROMPTS
 +       ​The ​ -P  option ​ allows ​ you  to  tailor the prompt to your preference. ​ The string given to the -P option replaces the specified
 +       ​prompt string. ​ Certain characters in the string are interpreted specially. ​ The prompt mechanism is rather complicated ​ to  pro‐
 +       vide flexibility,​ but the ordinary user need not understand the details of constructing personalized prompt strings.
 +
 +       A percent sign followed by a single character is expanded according to what the following character is:
 +
 +       ​%bX ​   Replaced by the byte offset into the current input file.  The b is followed by a single character (shown as X above) which
 +              specifies the line whose byte offset is to be used.  If the character is a "​t",​ the byte offset of the  top  line  in  the
 +              display ​ is  used,  an "​m"​ means use the middle line, a "​b"​ means use the bottom line, a "​B"​ means use the line just after
 +              the bottom line, and a "​j"​ means use the "​target"​ line, as specified by the -j option.
 +
 +       ​%B ​    ​Replaced by the size of the current input file.
 +
 +       ​%c ​    ​Replaced by the column number of the text appearing in the first column of the screen.
 +
 +       ​%dX ​   Replaced by the page number of a line in the input file.  The line to be used is determined by  the  X,  as  with  the  %b
 +              option.
 +
 +       ​%D ​    ​Replaced by the number of pages in the input file, or equivalently,​ the page number of the last line in the input file.
 +
 +       ​%E ​    ​Replaced ​ by the name of the editor (from the VISUAL environment variable, or the EDITOR environment variable if VISUAL is
 +              not defined). ​ See the discussion of the LESSEDIT feature below.
 +
 +       ​%f ​    ​Replaced by the name of the current input file.
 +
 +       ​%F ​    ​Replaced by the last component of the name of the current input file.
 +
 +       ​%i ​    ​Replaced by the index of the current file in the list of input files.
 +
 +       ​%lX ​   Replaced by the line number of a line in the input file.  The line to be used is determined by  the  X,  as  with  the  %b
 +              option.
 +
 +       ​%L ​    ​Replaced by the line number of the last line in the input file.
 +
 +       ​%m ​    ​Replaced by the total number of input files.
 +
 +       ​%pX ​   Replaced ​ by the percent into the current input file, based on byte offsets. ​ The line used is determined by the X as with
 +              the %b option.
 +
 +       ​%PX ​   Replaced by the percent into the current input file, based on line numbers. ​ The line used is determined by the X as  with
 +              the %b option.
 +
 +       ​%s ​    Same as %B.
 +
 +       ​%t ​    ​Causes any trailing spaces to be removed. ​ Usually used at the end of the string, but may appear anywhere.
 +
 +       ​%x ​    ​Replaced by the name of the next input file in the list.
 +
 +       If any item is unknown (for example, the file size if input is a pipe), a question mark is printed instead.
 +
 +       ​The ​ format ​ of the prompt string can be changed depending on certain conditions. ​ A question mark followed by a single character
 +       acts like an "​IF":​ depending on the following character, a condition is evaluated. ​ If the condition is true, any characters fol‐
 +       ​lowing ​ the  question ​ mark and condition character, up to a period, are included in the prompt. ​ If the condition is false, such
 +       ​characters are not included. ​ A colon appearing between the question mark and the period can be used to establish an "​ELSE": ​ any
 +       ​characters between the colon and the period are included in the string if and only if the IF condition is false. ​ Condition char‐
 +       ​acters (which follow a question mark) may be:
 +
 +       ?​a ​    True if any characters have been included in the prompt so far.
 +
 +       ?​bX ​   True if the byte offset of the specified line is known.
 +
 +       ?​B ​    True if the size of current input file is known.
 +
 +       ?​c ​    True if the text is horizontally shifted (%c is not zero).
 +
 +       ?​dX ​   True if the page number of the specified line is known.
 +
 +       ?​e ​    True if at end-of-file.
 +
 +       ?​f ​    True if there is an input filename (that is, if input is not a pipe).
 +
 +       ?​lX ​   True if the line number of the specified line is known.
 +
 +       ?​L ​    True if the line number of the last line in the file is known.
 +
 +       ?​m ​    True if there is more than one input file.
 +
 +       ?​n ​    True if this is the first prompt in a new input file.
 +
 +       ?​pX ​   True if the percent into the current input file, based on byte offsets, of the specified line is known.
 +
 +       ?​PX ​   True if the percent into the current input file, based on line numbers, of the specified line is known.
 +
 +       ?​s ​    Same as "?​B"​.
 +
 +       ?​x ​    True if there is a next input file (that is, if the current input file is not the last one).
 +
 +       Any characters other than the special ones (question mark, colon, period, percent, and backslash) become literally ​ part  of  the
 +       ​prompt. ​ Any of the special characters may be included in the prompt literally by preceding it with a backslash.
 +
 +       Some examples:
 +
 +       ?​f%f:​Standard input.
 +
 +       This prompt prints the filename, if known; otherwise the string "​Standard input"​.
 +
 +       ?f%f .?ltLine %lt:?​pt%pt\%:?​btByte %bt:-...
 +
 +       ​This ​ prompt would print the filename, if known. ​ The filename is followed by the line number, if known, otherwise the percent if
 +       ​known,​ otherwise the byte offset if known. ​ Otherwise, a dash is printed. ​ Notice how each question mark has a  matching ​ period,
 +       and how the % after the %pt is included literally by escaping it with a backslash.
 +
 +       ?​n?​f%f .?m(file %i of %m) ..?e(END) ?x- Next\: %x..%t
 +
 +       ​This ​ prints ​ the filename if this is the first prompt in a file, followed by the "file N of N" message if there is more than one
 +       input file.  Then, if we are at end-of-file,​ the string "​(END)"​ is printed followed by the name of the next  file,  if  there  is
 +       ​one. ​  ​Finally, ​ any  trailing ​ spaces ​ are truncated. ​ This is the default prompt. ​ For reference, here are the defaults for the
 +       other two prompts (-m and -M respectively). ​ Each is broken into two lines here for readability only.
 +
 +       ?​n?​f%f .?m(file %i of %m) ..?e(END) ?x- Next\: %x.:
 +            ?​pB%pB\%:​byte %bB?​s/​%s...%t
 +
 +       ?f%f .?n?m(file %i of %m) ..?ltlines %lt-%lb?​L/​%L. :
 +            byte %bB?s/%s. .?e(END) ?x- Next\: %x.:?​pB%pB\%..%t
 +
 +       And here is the default message produced by the = command:
 +
 +       ?f%f .?m(file %i of %m) .?ltlines %lt-%lb?​L/​%L. .
 +            byte %bB?s/%s. ?e(END) :?​pB%pB\%..%t
 +
 +       The prompt expansion features are also used for another purpose: if an environment variable LESSEDIT is defined, it  is  used  as
 +       the command to be executed when the v command is invoked. ​ The LESSEDIT string is expanded in the same way as the prompt strings.
 +       The default value for LESSEDIT is:
 +
 +            %E ?lm+%lm. %f
 +
 +       Note that this expands to the editor name, followed by a + and the line number, followed by the file name.  If your  editor ​ does
 +       ​not ​ accept the "​+linenumber"​ syntax, or has other differences in invocation syntax, the LESSEDIT variable can be changed to mod‐
 +       ify this default.
 +
 +
 +SECURITY
 +       When the environment variable LESSSECURE is set to 1, less runs in a "​secure"​ mode.  This means these features are disabled:
 +
 +              !      the shell command
 +
 +              |      the pipe command
 +
 +              :e     the examine command.
 +
 +              v      the editing command
 +
 +              s  -o  log files
 +
 +              -k     use of lesskey files
 +
 +              -t     use of tags files
 +
 +                     ​metacharacters in filenames, such as *
 +
 +                     ​filename completion (TAB, ^L)
 +
 +       Less can also be compiled to be permanently in "​secure"​ mode.
 +
 +
 +COMPATIBILITY WITH MORE
 +       If the environment variable LESS_IS_MORE is set to 1, or if the program is invoked via a file link  named  "​more", ​ less  behaves
 +       ​(mostly) in conformance with the POSIX "​more"​ command specification. ​ In this mode, less behaves differently in these ways:
 +
 +       ​The ​ -e  option ​ works differently. ​ If the -e option is not set, less behaves as if the -E option were set.  If the -e option is
 +       set, less behaves as if the -e and -F options were set.
 +
 +       The -m option works differently. ​ If the -m option is not set, the medium prompt is used, and it  is  prefixed ​ with  the  string
 +       "​--More--"​. ​ If the -m option is set, the short prompt is used.
 +
 +       The -n option acts like the -z option. ​ The normal behavior of the -n option is unavailable in this mode.
 +
 +       The parameter to the -p option is taken to be a less command rather than a search pattern.
 +
 +       The LESS environment variable is ignored, and the MORE environment variable is used in its place.
 +
 +
 +ENVIRONMENT VARIABLES
 +       ​Environment variables may be specified either in the system environment as usual, or in a lesskey (1) file.  If environment vari‐
 +       ables are defined in more than one place, variables defined in a local lesskey file take precedence over variables defined in the
 +       ​system environment,​ which take precedence over variables defined in the system-wide lesskey file.
 +
 +       ​COLUMNS
 +              Sets  the  number ​ of  columns on the screen. ​ Takes precedence over the number of columns specified by the TERM variable.
 +              (But if you have a windowing system which supports TIOCGWINSZ or WIOCGETD, the window system'​s idea  of  the  screen ​ size
 +              takes precedence over the LINES and COLUMNS environment variables.)
 +
 +       ​EDITOR The name of the editor (used for the v command).
 +
 +       ​HOME ​  Name of the user's home directory (used to find a lesskey file on Unix and OS/2 systems).
 +
 +       ​HOMEDRIVE,​ HOMEPATH
 +              Concatenation ​ of  the  HOMEDRIVE ​ and HOMEPATH environment variables is the name of the user's home directory if the HOME
 +              variable is not set (only in the Windows version).
 +
 +       ​INIT ​  Name of the user's init directory (used to find a lesskey file on OS/2 systems).
 +
 +       ​LANG ​  ​Language for determining the character set.
 +
 +       ​LC_CTYPE
 +              Language for determining the character set.
 +
 +       ​LESS ​  ​Options which are passed to less automatically.
 +
 +       ​LESSANSIENDCHARS
 +              Characters which may end an ANSI color escape sequence (default "​m"​).
 +
 +       ​LESSANSIMIDCHARS
 +              Characters which may appear between the ESC character and the end character in an  ANSI  color  escape ​ sequence ​ (default
 +              "​0123456789;​[?​!"'#​%()*+ ".
 +
 +       ​LESSBINFMT
 +              Format for displaying non-printable,​ non-control characters.
 +
 +       ​LESSCHARDEF
 +              Defines a character set.
 +
 +       ​LESSCHARSET
 +              Selects a predefined character set.
 +
 +       ​LESSCLOSE
 +              Command line to invoke the (optional) input-postprocessor.
 +
 +       ​LESSECHO
 +              Name of the lessecho program (default "​lessecho"​). ​ The lessecho program is needed to expand metacharacters,​ such as * and
 +              ?, in filenames on Unix systems.
 +
 +       ​LESSEDIT
 +              Editor prototype string (used for the v command). ​ See discussion under PROMPTS.
 +
 +       ​LESSGLOBALTAGS
 +              Name of the command used by the -t option to find global tags.  Normally should be set to "​global"​ if your system has  the
 +              global (1) command. ​ If not set, global tags are not used.
 +
 +       ​LESSHISTFILE
 +              Name  of  the history file used to remember search commands and shell commands between invocations of less.  If set to "​-"​
 +              or "/​dev/​null",​ a history file is not used.  The default is "​$HOME/​.lesshst"​ on Unix systems, "​$HOME/​_lesshst"​ on DOS  and
 +              Windows systems, or "​$HOME/​lesshst.ini"​ or "​$INIT/​lesshst.ini"​ on OS/2 systems.
 +
 +       ​LESSHISTSIZE
 +              The maximum number of commands to save in the history file.  The default is 100.
 +
 +       ​LESSKEY
 +              Name of the default lesskey(1) file.
 +
 +       ​LESSKEY_SYSTEM
 +              Name of the default system-wide lesskey(1) file.
 +
 +       ​LESSMETACHARS
 +              List of characters which are considered "​metacharacters"​ by the shell.
 +
 +       ​LESSMETAESCAPE
 +              Prefix ​ which  less  will  add  before ​ each  metacharacter in a command sent to the shell. ​ If LESSMETAESCAPE is an empty
 +              string, commands containing metacharacters will not be passed to the shell.
 +
 +       ​LESSOPEN
 +              Command line to invoke the (optional) input-preprocessor.
 +
 +       ​LESSSECURE
 +              Runs less in "​secure"​ mode.  See discussion under SECURITY.
 +
 +       ​LESSSEPARATOR
 +              String to be appended to a directory name in filename completion.
 +
 +       ​LESSUTFBINFMT
 +              Format for displaying non-printable Unicode code points.
 +
 +       ​LESS_IS_MORE
 +              Emulate the more (1) command.
 +
 +       ​LINES ​ Sets the number of lines on the screen. ​ Takes precedence over the number of lines specified by the TERM  variable. ​  (But
 +              if  you  have  a windowing system which supports TIOCGWINSZ or WIOCGETD, the window system'​s idea of the screen size takes
 +              precedence over the LINES and COLUMNS environment variables.)
 +
 +       ​MORE ​  ​Options which are passed to less automatically when running in more compatible mode.
 +
 +       ​PATH ​  ​User'​s search path (used to find a lesskey file on MS-DOS and OS/2 systems).
 +
 +       ​SHELL ​ The shell used to execute the ! command, as well as to expand filenames.
 +
 +       ​TERM ​  The type of terminal on which less is being run.
 +
 +       ​VISUAL The name of the editor (used for the v command).
 +
 +
 +SEE ALSO
 +       ​lesskey(1)
 +
 +
 +COPYRIGHT
 +       ​Copyright (C) 1984-2012 ​ Mark Nudelman
 +
 +       less is part of the GNU project and is free software. ​ You can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of either (1) the
 +       ​GNU ​ General ​ Public ​ License ​ as published by the Free Software Foundation; or (2) the Less License. ​ See the file README in the
 +       less distribution for more details regarding redistribution. ​ You should have received a copy of the GNU General ​ Public ​ License
 +       along with the source for less; see the file COPYING. ​ If not, write to the Free Software Foundation, 59 Temple Place, Suite 330,
 +       ​Boston,​ MA  02111-1307, USA.  You should also have received a copy of the Less License; see the file LICENSE.
 +
 +       less is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without ​ even  the  implied ​ warranty ​ of  MER‐
 +       ​CHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. ​ See the GNU General Public License for more details.
 +
 +
 +AUTHOR
 +       Mark Nudelman
 +       Send bug reports or comments to <​bug-less@gnu.org>​
 +       See http://​www.greenwoodsoftware.com/​less/​bugs.html for the latest list of known bugs in less.
 +       For more information,​ see the less homepage at
 +       ​http://​www.greenwoodsoftware.com/​less.
 +
 +
 +
 +                                                        Version 458: 04 Apr 2013                                                 ​LESS(1)
 +
 +</​code>​
  
  • man_de_less.txt
  • Dernière modification: 2016/03/30 15:33
  • (modification externe)