[[man_de_journalctl]]

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 +==== Manuel de la commande "​journalctl"​ ====
 +
 +<​code>​
 +JOURNALCTL(1) ​                                                 journalctl ​                                                 JOURNALCTL(1)
 +
 +
 +
 +NAME
 +       ​journalctl - Query the systemd journal
 +
 +SYNOPSIS
 +       ​journalctl [OPTIONS...] [MATCHES...]
 +
 +DESCRIPTION
 +       ​journalctl may be used to query the contents of the systemd(1) journal as written by systemd-journald.service(8).
 +
 +       If called without parameters, it will show the full contents of the journal, starting with the oldest entry collected.
 +
 +       If one or more match arguments are passed, the output is filtered accordingly. A match is in the format "​FIELD=VALUE",​ e.g.
 +       "​_SYSTEMD_UNIT=httpd.service",​ referring to the components of a structured journal entry. See systemd.journal-fields(7) for a
 +       list of well-known fields. If multiple matches are specified matching different fields, the log entries are filtered by both,
 +       i.e. the resulting output will show only entries matching all the specified matches of this kind. If two matches apply to the
 +       same field, then they are automatically matched as alternatives,​ i.e. the resulting output will show entries matching any of the
 +       ​specified matches for the same field. Finally, if the character "​+"​ appears as a separate word on the command line, all matches
 +       ​before and after are combined in a disjunction (i.e. logical OR).
 +
 +       As shortcuts for a few types of field/value matches, file paths may be specified. If a file path refers to an executable file,
 +       this is equivalent to an "​_EXE="​ match for the canonicalized binary path. Similarly, if a path refers to a device node, this is
 +       ​equivalent to a "​_KERNEL_DEVICE="​ match for the device.
 +
 +       ​Output is interleaved from all accessible journal files, whether they are rotated or currently being written, and regardless of
 +       ​whether they belong to the system itself or are accessible user journals.
 +
 +       All users are granted access to their private per-user journals. However, by default, only root and users who are members of the
 +       "​systemd-journal"​ group get access to the system journal and the journals of other users.
 +
 +       The output is paged through less by default, and long lines are "​truncated"​ to screen width. The hidden part can be viewed by
 +       using the left-arrow and right-arrow keys. Paging can be disabled; see the --no-pager option and the "​Environment"​ section below.
 +
 +       When outputing to a tty, lines are colored according to priority: lines of level ERROR and higher are colored red; lines of level
 +       ​NOTICE and higher are highlighted;​ other lines are displayed normally.
 +
 +OPTIONS
 +       The following options are understood:
 +
 +       ​--no-full,​ --full, -l
 +           ​Ellipsize fields when they do not fit in available columns. The default is to show full fields, allowing them to wrap or be
 +           ​truncated by the pager, if one is used.
 +
 +           The old options -l/--full are not useful anymore, except to undo --no-full.
 +
 +       -a, --all
 +           Show all fields in full, even if they include unprintable characters or are very long.
 +
 +       -f, --follow
 +           Show only the most recent journal entries, and continuously print new entries as they are appended to the journal.
 +
 +       -e, --pager-end
 +           ​Immediately jump to the end of the journal inside the implied pager tool. This implies -n1000 to guarantee that the pager
 +           will not buffer logs of unbounded size. This may be overridden with an explicit -n with some other numeric value on the
 +           ​command line. Note that this option is only supported for the less(1) pager.
 +
 +       -n, --lines=
 +           Show the most recent journal events and limit the number of events shown. If --follow is used, this option is implied. The
 +           ​argument,​ a positive integer, is optional, and defaults to 10.
 +
 +       ​--no-tail
 +           Show all stored output lines, even in follow mode. Undoes the effect of --lines=.
 +
 +       -r, --reverse
 +           ​Reverse output so that the newest entries are displayed first.
 +
 +       -o, --output=
 +           ​Controls the formatting of the journal entries that are shown. Takes one of the following options:
 +
 +           short
 +               is the default and generates an output that is mostly identical to the formatting of classic syslog files, showing one
 +               line per journal entry.
 +
 +           ​short-iso
 +               is very similar, but shows ISO 8601 wallclock timestamps.
 +
 +           ​short-precise
 +               is very similar, but shows timestamps with full microsecond precision.
 +
 +           ​short-monotonic
 +               is very similar, but shows monotonic timestamps instead of wallclock timestamps.
 +
 +           ​verbose
 +               shows the full-structured entry items with all fields.
 +
 +           ​export
 +               ​serializes the journal into a binary (but mostly text-based) stream suitable for backups and network transfer (see
 +               ​Journal Export Format[1] for more information).
 +
 +           json
 +               ​formats entries as JSON data structures, one per line (see Journal JSON Format[2] for more information).
 +
 +           ​json-pretty
 +               ​formats entries as JSON data structures, but formats them in multiple lines in order to make them more readable by
 +               ​humans.
 +
 +           ​json-sse
 +               ​formats entries as JSON data structures, but wraps them in a format suitable for Server-Sent Events[3].
 +
 +           cat
 +               ​generates a very terse output, only showing the actual message of each journal entry with no metadata, not even a
 +               ​timestamp.
 +
 +       -x, --catalog
 +           ​Augment log lines with explanation texts from the message catalog. This will add explanatory help texts to log messages in
 +           the output where this is available. These short help texts will explain the context of an error or log event, possible
 +           ​solutions,​ as well as pointers to support forums, developer documentation,​ and any other relevant manuals. Note that help
 +           texts are not available for all messages, but only for selected ones. For more information on the message catalog, please
 +           refer to the Message Catalog Developer Documentation[4].
 +
 +           Note: when attaching journalctl output to bug reports, please do not use -x.
 +
 +       -q, --quiet
 +           ​Suppresses any warning messages regarding inaccessible system journals when run as a normal user.
 +
 +       -m, --merge
 +           Show entries interleaved from all available journals, including remote ones.
 +
 +       -b [ID][±offset],​ --boot=[ID][±offset]
 +           Show messages from a specific boot. This will add a match for "​_BOOT_ID="​.
 +
 +           The argument may be empty, in which case logs for the current boot will be shown.
 +
 +           If the boot ID is omitted, a positive offset will look up the boots starting from the beginning of the journal, and a
 +           ​equal-or-less-than zero offset will look up boots starting from the end of the journal. Thus, 1 means the first boot found in
 +           the journal in chronological order, 2 the second and so on; while -0 is the last boot, -1 the boot before last, and so on. An
 +           empty offset is equivalent to specifying -0, except when the current boot is not the last boot (e.g. because --directory was
 +           ​specified to look at logs from a different machine).
 +
 +           If the 32-character ID is specified, it may optionally be followed by offset which identifies the boot relative to the one
 +           given by boot ID. Negative values mean earlier boots and a positive values mean later boots. If offset is not specified, a
 +           value of zero is assumed, and the logs for the boot given by ID are shown.
 +
 +       ​--list-boots
 +           Show a tabular list of boot numbers (relative to the current boot), their IDs, and the timestamps of the first and last
 +           ​message pertaining to the boot.
 +
 +       -k, --dmesg
 +           Show only kernel messages. This implies -b and adds the match "​_TRANSPORT=kernel"​.
 +
 +       -u, --unit=UNIT|PATTERN
 +           Show messages for the specified systemd unit UNIT, or for any of the units matched by PATTERN. If a pattern is specified, a
 +           list of unit names found in the journal is compared with the specified pattern and all that match are used. For each unit
 +           name, a match is added for messages from the unit ("​_SYSTEMD_UNIT=UNIT"​),​ along with additional matches for messages from
 +           ​systemd and messages about coredumps for the specified unit.
 +
 +           This parameter can be specified multiple times.
 +
 +       ​--user-unit=
 +           Show messages for the specified user session unit. This will add a match for messages from the unit ("​_SYSTEMD_USER_UNIT="​
 +           and "​_UID="​) and additional matches for messages from session systemd and messages about coredumps for the specified unit.
 +
 +           This parameter can be specified multiple times.
 +
 +       -p, --priority=
 +           ​Filter output by message priorities or priority ranges. Takes either a single numeric or textual log level (i.e. between
 +           ​0/"​emerg"​ and 7/"​debug"​),​ or a range of numeric/​text log levels in the form FROM..TO. The log levels are the usual syslog log
 +           ​levels as documented in syslog(3), i.e.  "​emerg"​ (0), "​alert"​ (1), "​crit"​ (2), "​err"​ (3), "​warning"​ (4), "​notice"​ (5), "​info"​
 +           (6), "​debug"​ (7). If a single log level is specified, all messages with this log level or a lower (hence more important) log
 +           level are shown. If a range is specified, all messages within the range are shown, including both the start and the end value
 +           of the range. This will add "​PRIORITY="​ matches for the specified priorities.
 +
 +       -c, --cursor=
 +           Start showing entries from the location in the journal specified by the passed cursor.
 +
 +       ​--after-cursor=
 +           Start showing entries from the location in the journal after the location specified by the this cursor. The cursor is shown
 +           when the --show-cursor option is used.
 +
 +       ​--show-cursor
 +           The cursor is shown after the last entry after two dashes:
 +
 +               -- cursor: s=0639...
 +
 +           The format of the cursor is private and subject to change.
 +
 +       ​--since=,​ --until=
 +           Start showing entries on or newer than the specified date, or on or older than the specified date, respectively. Date
 +           ​specifications should be of the format "​2012-10-30 18:​17:​16"​. If the time part is omitted, "​00:​00:​00"​ is assumed. If only the
 +           ​seconds component is omitted, ":​00"​ is assumed. If the date component is omitted, the current day is assumed. Alternatively
 +           the strings "​yesterday",​ "​today",​ "​tomorrow"​ are understood, which refer to 00:00:00 of the day before the current day, the
 +           ​current day, or the day after the current day, respectively. ​ "​now"​ refers to the current time. Finally, relative times may
 +           be specified, prefixed with "​-"​ or "​+",​ referring to times before or after the current time, respectively.
 +
 +       -F, --field=
 +           Print all possible data values the specified field can take in all entries of the journal.
 +
 +       ​--system,​ --user
 +           Show messages from system services and the kernel (with --system). Show messages from service of current user (with --user).
 +           If neither is specified, show all messages that the user can see.
 +
 +       -M, --machine=
 +           Show messages from a running, local container. Specify a container name to connect to.
 +
 +       -D DIR, --directory=DIR
 +           Takes a directory path as argument. If specified, journalctl will operate on the specified journal directory DIR instead of
 +           the default runtime and system journal paths.
 +
 +       ​--file=GLOB
 +           Takes a file glob as an argument. If specified, journalctl will operate on the specified journal files matching GLOB instead
 +           of the default runtime and system journal paths. May be specified multiple times, in which case files will be suitably
 +           ​interleaved.
 +
 +       ​--root=ROOT
 +           Takes a directory path as an argument. If specified, journalctl will operate on catalog file hierarchy underneath the
 +           ​specified directory instead of the root directory (e.g.  --update-catalog will create ROOT/​var/​lib/​systemd/​catalog/​database).
 +
 +       ​--new-id128
 +           ​Instead of showing journal contents, generate a new 128-bit ID suitable for identifying messages. This is intended for usage
 +           by developers who need a new identifier for a new message they introduce and want to make recognizable. This will print the
 +           new ID in three different formats which can be copied into source code or similar.
 +
 +       ​--header
 +           ​Instead of showing journal contents, show internal header information of the journal fields accessed.
 +
 +       ​--disk-usage
 +           Shows the current disk usage of all journal files.
 +
 +       ​--list-catalog [128-bit-ID...]
 +           List the contents of the message catalog as a table of message IDs, plus their short description strings.
 +
 +           If any 128-bit-IDs are specified, only those entries are shown.
 +
 +       ​--dump-catalog [128-bit-ID...]
 +           Show the contents of the message catalog, with entries separated by a line consisting of two dashes and the ID (the format is
 +           the same as .catalog files).
 +
 +           If any 128-bit-IDs are specified, only those entries are shown.
 +
 +       ​--update-catalog
 +           ​Update the message catalog index. This command needs to be executed each time new catalog files are installed, removed, or
 +           ​updated to rebuild the binary catalog index.
 +
 +       ​--setup-keys
 +           ​Instead of showing journal contents, generate a new key pair for Forward Secure Sealing (FSS). This will generate a sealing
 +           key and a verification key. The sealing key is stored in the journal data directory and shall remain on the host. The
 +           ​verification key should be stored externally. Refer to the Seal= option in journald.conf(5) for information on Forward Secure
 +           ​Sealing and for a link to a refereed scholarly paper detailing the cryptographic theory it is based on.
 +
 +       ​--force
 +           When --setup-keys is passed and Forward Secure Sealing (FSS) has already been configured, recreate FSS keys.
 +
 +       ​--interval=
 +           ​Specifies the change interval for the sealing key when generating an FSS key pair with --setup-keys. Shorter intervals
 +           ​increase CPU consumption but shorten the time range of undetectable journal alterations. Defaults to 15min.
 +
 +       ​--verify
 +           Check the journal file for internal consistency. If the file has been generated with FSS enabled and the FSS verification key
 +           has been specified with --verify-key=,​ authenticity of the journal file is verified.
 +
 +       ​--verify-key=
 +           ​Specifies the FSS verification key to use for the --verify operation.
 +
 +       -h, --help
 +           Print a short help text and exit.
 +
 +       ​--version
 +           Print a short version string and exit.
 +
 +       ​--no-pager
 +           Do not pipe output into a pager.
 +
 +EXIT STATUS
 +       On success, 0 is returned; otherwise, a non-zero failure code is returned.
 +
 +ENVIRONMENT
 +       ​$SYSTEMD_PAGER
 +           Pager to use when --no-pager is not given; overrides $PAGER. Setting this to an empty string or the value "​cat"​ is equivalent
 +           to passing --no-pager.
 +
 +       ​$SYSTEMD_LESS
 +           ​Override the default options passed to less ("​FRSXMK"​).
 +
 +EXAMPLES
 +       ​Without arguments, all collected logs are shown unfiltered:
 +
 +           ​journalctl
 +
 +       With one match specified, all entries with a field matching the expression are shown:
 +
 +           ​journalctl _SYSTEMD_UNIT=avahi-daemon.service
 +
 +       If two different fields are matched, only entries matching both expressions at the same time are shown:
 +
 +           ​journalctl _SYSTEMD_UNIT=avahi-daemon.service _PID=28097
 +
 +       If two matches refer to the same field, all entries matching either expression are shown:
 +
 +           ​journalctl _SYSTEMD_UNIT=avahi-daemon.service _SYSTEMD_UNIT=dbus.service
 +
 +       If the separator "​+"​ is used, two expressions may be combined in a logical OR. The following will show all messages from the
 +       Avahi service process with the PID 28097 plus all messages from the D-Bus service (from any of its processes):
 +
 +           ​journalctl _SYSTEMD_UNIT=avahi-daemon.service _PID=28097 + _SYSTEMD_UNIT=dbus.service
 +
 +       Show all logs generated by the D-Bus executable:
 +
 +           ​journalctl /​usr/​bin/​dbus-daemon
 +
 +       Show all logs of the kernel device node /dev/sda:
 +
 +           ​journalctl /dev/sda
 +
 +       Show all kernel logs from previous boot:
 +
 +           ​journalctl -k -b -1
 +
 +SEE ALSO
 +       ​systemd(1),​ systemd-journald.service(8),​ systemctl(1),​ coredumpctl(1),​ systemd.journal-fields(7),​ journald.conf(5)
 +
 +NOTES
 +        1. Journal Export Format
 +           ​http://​www.freedesktop.org/​wiki/​Software/​systemd/​export
 +
 +        2. Journal JSON Format
 +           ​http://​www.freedesktop.org/​wiki/​Software/​systemd/​json
 +
 +        3. Server-Sent Events
 +           ​https://​developer.mozilla.org/​en-US/​docs/​Server-sent_events/​Using_server-sent_events
 +
 +        4. Message Catalog Developer Documentation
 +           ​http://​www.freedesktop.org/​wiki/​Software/​systemd/​catalog
 +
 +
 +
 +systemd 215                                                                                                                JOURNALCTL(1)
 +
 +</​code>​
  
  • man_de_journalctl.txt
  • Dernière modification: 2016/03/30 15:33
  • (modification externe)